Journal Article

An extended <i>XMM–Newton</i> observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4051 – II. Soft X-ray emission from a limb-brightened shell of post-shock gas

K. A. Pounds and S. Vaughan

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 415, issue 3, pages 2379-2387
Published in print August 2011 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online August 2011 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18866.x
An extended XMM–Newton observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4051 – II. Soft X-ray emission from a limb-brightened shell of post-shock gas

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An extended XMM–Newton observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 in 2009 revealed a complex absorption spectrum, with a wide range of outflow velocities and ionization states. The main velocity and ionization structure was interpreted in Paper I in terms of a decelerating, recombining flow resulting from the shocking of a still higher velocity wind colliding with the interstellar medium or slower moving ejecta. The high sensitivity of the XMM–Newton observation also revealed a number of broad emission lines, all showing evidence of self-absorption near the line cores. The line profiles are found here to be consistent with emission from a limb-brightened shell of post-shock gas building up ahead of the contact discontinuity. While the broad emission lines remain quasi-constant as the continuum flux changes by an order of magnitude, recombination continua of several H- and He-like ions are found to vary in response to the continuum, providing an important key to scaling the ionized flow.

Keywords: galaxies: active; galaxies: general; galaxies: individual: NGC 4051; galaxies: Seyfert; X-rays: galaxies

Journal Article.  6400 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics

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