Journal Article

Properties of star-forming galaxies in a cluster and its surrounding structure at <i>z</i> = 1.46

Masao Hayashi, Tadayuki Kodama, Yusei Koyama, Ken-ichi Tadaki and Ichi Tanaka

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 415, issue 3, pages 2670-2687
Published in print August 2011 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online August 2011 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18892.x
Properties of star-forming galaxies in a cluster and its surrounding structure at z = 1.46

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We conduct a wide-field narrow-band imaging survey of [O ii] emitters in and around the XMMXCS J2215.9−1738 cluster at z= 1.46 with Subaru/Suprime-Cam. In a 32 × 23 arcmin2 area, we select 380 [O ii] emitting galaxies down to 1.4 × 10−17 erg s−1 cm−2. Among them, 16 [O ii] emitters in the central region of the cluster are confirmed by near-infrared spectroscopy with Subaru/MOIRCS, suggesting that our photometric selection is valid for sample [O ii] emitters at z= 1.46. We find that [O ii] emitters are distributed along filamentary large-scale structures around the cluster, which are among the largest structures of star-forming galaxies ever identified at 1.3 ≲z≲ 3.0. We define several environments such as cluster core, outskirts, filament and field in order to investigate the environment dependence of star-forming galaxies at z= 1.46. The colour–magnitude diagram of z′−K versus K for the [O ii] emitting galaxies shows that a significantly higher fraction of [O ii] emitters with red z′−K colours is seen in the cluster core than in other environments. It seems that the environment that hosts such red star-forming galaxies shifts from the core region at z= 1.46 to the outskirts of clusters at lower redshifts. A multicolour analysis of the red emitters indicates that these galaxies are more like nearly passively evolving galaxies which host [O ii] emitting active galactic nuclei (AGNs), rather than dust-reddened star-forming [O ii] emitters. We argue therefore that AGN feedback may be one of the critical processes to quench star formation in massive galaxies in high-density regions. The emission line ratios of [O iii]/Hβ and [N ii]/Hα of the [O ii] emitters in the cluster core support the inference that there is a moderate contribution of AGN to the emitters. We also find that the cluster has experienced high star formation activities at rates comparable to that in the field at z= 1.46 in contrast to lower redshift clusters, and that star formation activity in galaxy clusters on average increases with redshift up to z= 1.46. In addition, line ratios of [N ii]/Hα and [O iii]/Hβ indicate that a mass–metallicity relation exists in the cluster at z= 1.46, which is similar to that of star-forming galaxies in the field at z∼ 2. These results all suggest that at z∼ 1.5 star formation activity in the cluster core becomes as high as those in low-density environments and that there is apparently not yet a strong environmental dependence, except for the red emitters.

Keywords: galaxies: clusters: general; galaxies: clusters: individual: XMMXCS J2215.9−1738; galaxies: evolution

Journal Article.  13981 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics

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