Journal Article

3D radiative transfer modelling of the dusty tori around active galactic nuclei as a clumpy two-phase medium

Marko Stalevski, Jacopo Fritz, Maarten Baes, Theodoros Nakos and Luka Č. Popović

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 420, issue 4, pages 2756-2772
Published in print March 2012 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online March 2012 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI:
3D radiative transfer modelling of the dusty tori around active galactic nuclei as a clumpy two-phase medium

Show Summary Details


We investigate the emission of active galactic nucleus (AGN) dusty tori in infrared domain. Following theoretical predictions derived from hydrodynamical simulations, we model the dusty torus as a 3D two-phase medium with high-density clumps and low-density medium filling the space between the clumps. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and images of the torus at different wavelengths are obtained using the 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code skirt. Our approach of generating clumpy structure allows us to model the tori with single clumps, complex structures of merged clumps or interconnected sponge-like structure. A corresponding set of clumps-only models and models with smooth dust distribution is calculated for comparison. We found that dust distribution, optical depth, clump size and their actual arrangement in the innermost region all have an impact on the shape of near- and mid-infrared SED. The 10-μm silicate feature can be suppressed for some parameters, but models with smooth dust distribution are also able to produce a wide range of silicate feature strength. Finally, we find that having the dust distributed in a two-phase medium might offer a natural solution to the lack of emission in near-infrared, compared to observed data, which affects clumpy models currently available in the literature.

Keywords: radiative transfer; galaxies: active; galaxies: nuclei; galaxies: Seyfert

Journal Article.  9909 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.