Journal Article

Correlated X-ray/ultraviolet/optical variability in the very low mass AGN NGC 4395

D. T. Cameron, I. McHardy, T. Dwelly, E. Breedt, P. Uttley, P. Lira and P. Arevalo

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 422, issue 1, pages 902-912
Published in print May 2012 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online April 2012 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI:
Correlated X-ray/ultraviolet/optical variability in the very low mass AGN NGC 4395

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We report the results of a 1-yr Swift X-ray/ultraviolet (UV)/optical programme monitoring the dwarf Seyfert nucleus in NGC 4395 in 2008–2009. The UV/optical flux from the nucleus was found to vary dramatically over the monitoring period, with a similar pattern of variation in each of the observed UV/optical bands (spanning 1900–5500 Å). In particular, the luminosity of NGC 4395 in the 1900 Å band changed by more than a factor of 8 over the monitoring period. The fractional variability was smaller in the UV/optical bands than that seen in the X-rays, with the X-ray/optical ratio increasing with increasing flux. Pseudo-instantaneous flux measurements in the X-ray and each UV/optical band were well correlated, with cross-correlation coefficients of ≥0.7, significant at 99.9 per cent confidence. Archival Swift observations from 2006 sample the intra-day X-ray/optical variability on NGC 4395. These archival data show a very strong correlation between the X-ray and b bands, with a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.84 (significant at >99 per cent confidence). The peak in the cross-correlation function is marginally resolved and asymmetric, suggesting that X-rays lead the b band, but by ≤1 h. In response to recent (2011 August) very high X-ray flux levels from NGC 4395 we triggered Swift target of opportunity observations, which sample the intra-hour X-ray/UV variability. These observations indicate, albeit with large uncertainties, a lag of the 1900 Å band behind the X-ray flux of ∼400 s. The tight correlation between the X-ray and UV/optical lightcurves, together with the constraints we place on the lag time-scale, is consistent with the UV/optical variability of NGC 4395 being primarily due to reprocessing of X-ray photons by the accretion disc.

Keywords: accretion, accretion discs; galaxies: individual: NGC 4395; galaxies: Seyfert; ultraviolet: galaxies; X-rays: galaxies

Journal Article.  8168 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics

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