Journal Article

Turbulent linewidths as a diagnostic of self-gravity in protostellar discs

Duncan Forgan, Philip J. Armitage and Jacob B. Simon

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 426, issue 3, pages 2419-2426
Published in print November 2012 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online November 2012 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI:
Turbulent linewidths as a diagnostic of self-gravity in protostellar discs

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We use smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of massive protostellar discs to investigate the predicted broadening of molecular lines from discs in which self-gravity is the dominant source of angular momentum transport. The simulations include radiative transfer, and span a range of disc-to-star mass ratios between Md/M* = 0.25 and 1.5. Subtracting off the mean azimuthal flow velocity, we compute the distribution of the in-plane and perpendicular peculiar velocity due to large-scale structure and turbulence induced by self-gravity. For the lower mass discs, we show that the characteristic peculiar velocities scale with the square root of the effective turbulent viscosity parameter, α, as expected from local α-disc theory. The derived velocities are anisotropic, with substantially larger in-plane than perpendicular values. As the disc mass is increased, the validity of the α approximation breaks down, and this is accompanied by anomalously large in-plane broadening. There is also a high variance due to the importance of low-m spiral modes. For low-mass discs, the magnitude of in-plane broadening is, to leading order, equal to the predictions from α disc theory and cannot constrain the source of turbulence. However, combining our results with prior evaluations of turbulent broadening expected in discs where the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is active, we argue that self-gravity may be distinguishable from the MRI in these systems if it is possible to measure the anisotropy of the peculiar velocity field with disc inclination. Furthermore, for large mass discs, the dominant contribution of large-scale modes is a distinguishing characteristic of self-gravitating turbulence versus MRI-driven turbulence.

Keywords: accretion, accretion discs; hydrodynamics; radiative transfer; methods: numerical; stars: formation

Journal Article.  4898 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics

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