Journal Article

The collapse of protoplanetary clumps formed through disc instability: 3D simulations of the pre-dissociation phase

M. Galvagni, T. Hayfield, A. Boley, L. Mayer, R. Roškar and P. Saha

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 427, issue 2, pages 1725-1740
Published in print December 2012 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online December 2012 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.22096.x
The collapse of protoplanetary clumps formed through disc instability: 3D simulations of the pre-dissociation phase

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We present 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the collapse of clumps formed through gravitational instability in the outer part of a protoplanetary disc. The initial conditions are taken directly from a global disc simulation, and a realistic equation of state is used to follow the clumps as they contract over several orders of magnitude in density, approaching the molecular hydrogen dissociation stage. The effects of clump rotation, asymmetries and radiative cooling are studied. Rotation provides support against fast collapse, but non-axisymmetric modes develop and efficiently transport angular momentum outwards, forming a circumplanetary disc. This transport helps the clump reach the dynamical collapse phase, resulting from molecular hydrogen dissociation, on a thousand-year time-scale, which is smaller than time-scales predicted by some previous spherical 1D collapse models. Extrapolation to the threshold of the runaway hydrogen dissociation indicates that the collapse time-scales can be shorter than inward migration time-scales, suggesting that clumps could survive tidal disruption and deliver a protogas giant to distances of even a few au from the central star.

Keywords: planets and satellites: formation; protoplanetary discs

Journal Article.  7507 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics

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