Journal Article

Detection of <i>Cryptosporidium</i>, <i>Giardia</i> and <i>Enterocytozoon bieneusi</i> in surface water, including recreational areas: a one-year prospective study

Stephane Coupe, Karine Delabre, Regis Pouillot, Stephanie Houdart, Maud Santillana-Hayat and Francis Derouin

in FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology

Published on behalf of Federation of Microbiological Societies

Volume 47, issue 3, pages 351-359
Published in print August 2006 | ISSN: 0928-8244
Published online June 2006 | e-ISSN: 1574-695X | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-695X.2006.00098.x
Detection of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in surface water, including recreational areas: a one-year prospective study

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Abstract

Accidental ingestion of natural waters while bathing carries a risk of infection by waterborne protozoa such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia and, possibly, microsporidia. In order to evaluate this risk, we conducted a one-year prospective study of two recreational lakes and three river sites located near Paris, where bathing and boating are frequent. Twenty-litre water samples were collected monthly from each site. Concentrated samples were submitted to immunomagnetic separation followed by immunofluorescence (IMS-IF) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection. PCR and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were used for the genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium species on IMS-IF-positive samples. PCR were systematically performed to detect Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Bacteria counts were also determined. IMS-IF revealed low counts of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the recreational lakes, with occasional peaks (max. 165 cysts/10 L and 9 oocysts/10 L). By contrast, the river sites were consistently and sometimes heavily contaminated throughout the year. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was found in only two river samples. PCR-RFLP genotyping showed the presence of C. hominis and C. parvum. No correlation was found between the presence or counts of parasites and bacteria, except between the presence of Giardia and high counts of Escherichia coli and enterococci. Based on a previously developed model for quantitative risk assessment of waterborne parasitic infections, we estimated that the mean risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and Giardia associated with swimming was <10−4 in the recreational lakes, and frequently higher at the river sites.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium; Giardia; Enterocytozoon bieneusi; surface water; IMS-IF; quantitative risk assessment (QRA)

Journal Article.  5638 words. 

Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology ; Biotechnology ; Genetics and Genomics ; Microbiology ; Molecular and Cell Biology

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