Chapter

Estonia

Saar Ellu and Lindemann Kristina

in Europe enlarged

Published by Policy Press

Published in print July 2008 | ISBN: 9781847420640
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9781447302230 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781847420640.003.0007
Estonia

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During the 50 years after the 1940 annexation by the former Soviet Union, Estonia was politically and economically integrated into the Communist Bloc. It was not until 1991 that the country regained its independence and returned to democracy and a market economy. In the subsequent decade-and-a-half, Estonia experienced profound reforms in all areas of politics, economy and society. These reforms included trade liberalisation, large-scale privatisation, the introduction of the kroon as the national currency and an overhaul of labour market regulations. The economic transition brought about a substantial decline in employment and activity rates, accompanied by a rapid increase in unemployment. The dominance of liberal right-wing parties in all governmental coalitions since 1992 has contributed to the shift towards a minimalist state. Where labour market security is concerned, unemployment benefits are low, and unemployment insurance covers only a small share of the unemployed.

Keywords: Soviet Union; market economy; trade liberalisation; large-scale privatisation; kroon; liberal right-wing

Chapter.  9530 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Comparative and Historical Sociology

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