Chapter

Working age: taxation

Martin Evans and Lewis Williams

in A generation of change, a lifetime of difference?

Published by Policy Press

Published in print September 2009 | ISBN: 9781847423054
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9781447301387 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781847423054.003.0005
Working age: taxation

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This chapter explores the different forms of taxation that exist and the underlying components of income tax. The British tax system presents households with taxes: income tax; National Insurance contributions (NICs); local government taxation; and indirect taxation through consumption. NICs are a form of tax that have better public relations than income tax. Local government taxation is one of the oldest forms of tax. Moreover, it explains how partnership and marriage are treated across the range of direct taxes. It also briefly considers how the median model family, the Meades, fare in terms of overall direct taxation under the 1979, 1997 and 2008 systems. Income tax rates were cut by the Conservatives and to a lesser extent by New Labour. The cumulative effect of reforms to National Insurance has been to bring NICs much closer to income tax.

Keywords: income tax; National Insurance contributions; local government taxation; indirect taxation; consumption; New Labour; Meades

Chapter.  8137 words.  Illustrated.

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