Chapter

The Green Revolution in Mountain Agriculture

Robert W. Hefner

in The Political Economy of Mountain Java

Published by University of California Press

Published in print December 1990 | ISBN: 9780520069336
Published online May 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520913769 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520069336.003.0004
The Green Revolution in Mountain Agriculture

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The changes seen in mountain agriculture in the mid-1970s were in part the unintended consequence of developments begun in the wet-rice lowlands in the late 1960s and only marginally concerned with upland or rainfed agriculture. In the first five-year development plan (1969–74), “food policy was rice policy.” Preoccupied with sawah production, the government paid little attention to the rainfed uplands, and production there stagnated. Indirectly, however, state policies had a powerful impact on mountain agriculture. Programs for distributing chemical fertilizers to wet-rice farmers created a thriving black market. Government efforts to expand production eventually created supplies sufficient to allow deregulation, providing upland farmers with legal access to fertilizers. Roadbuilding and the manufacture of a new fleet of light trucks brought transportation to even remote mountain communities, allowing farmers to market their goods quickly and more cheaply. With increased mobility came new consumer goods and outside investment. Mountain villages experienced these changes with particular intensity. Less economically stratified than their lowland counterparts, highland communities were suddenly exposed to a new range of social influences. Inward-focused cultural traditions were undermined as the movement of people, capital, and goods became easier and radio and television brought home new images of identity and well-being.

Keywords: agricultural policy; mountain agriculture; upland agriculture; social influence; highland communities

Chapter.  13765 words. 

Subjects: Anthropology

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