Pamela Kyle Crossley

in A Translucent Mirror

Published by University of California Press

Published in print February 2000 | ISBN: 9780520215665
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520928848 | DOI:

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This chapter describes the rulership that functioned during the Qing Empire. It notes that the empire is considered to have been founded by, controlled by, or given a certain political and cultural cast by, the Manchus in the early seventeenth century. The chapter explains that during the eighteenth century, the Qing reached its height of political control over Manchuria, Mongolia, Chinese Turkestan, Tibet, and China, as well as the states recognizing Qing superiority in the system of court visitation, sometimes called the tributary system. It adds that this golden age was represented in the rile of the Qianlong emperor, the most “Confucian,” “sinified,” or simply grandest of the Qing rulers. After his death, the empire went into a decline during which it became vulnerable to the expansionist, colonialist, and imperialist actions of Europe, the United States, and eventually Japan.

Keywords: Qing Empire; Manchus; Manchuria; Mongolia; Chinese Turkestan; Tibet; China; Europe; United States; Japan

Chapter.  23340 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Asian History

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