Chapter

The Character of Loyalty

Pamela Kyle Crossley

in A Translucent Mirror

Published by University of California Press

Published in print February 2000 | ISBN: 9780520215665
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520928848 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520215665.003.0003
The Character of Loyalty

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In the historical revisionism of the later eighteenth century, the Qianlong commitment to loyalty became so abstract that Ming loyalists who had opposed the Qing onslaught were enshrined, while those who had deserted the Ming to join the Qing were in varying degrees condemned. When viewed through the lens of Ming philosophies of identity and loyalty, the cultural layering of Liaodong had had fatal consequences for Tong Bunian. When viewed through the lens of Qianlong idealism, it had fatal consequences for the culture in which Tong Bunian was raised. Nurgaci's khanate, in contrast to the Ming empire, made its primary distinctions culturally and geographically. The cultural representation of the population of Tong of Fushun became difficult after the conquest of north China. The continuing paradox was how to stabilize the identities of conqueror and conquered without creating legal, political, or ideological obstacles to continued incorporation of imperial servitors.

Keywords: historical revisionism; eighteenth century; Qianlong; Ming loyalists; Qing; Qianlong idealism; Tong Bunian

Chapter.  18244 words. 

Subjects: Asian History

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