Chapter

The Wheel-Turning King

Pamela Kyle Crossley

in A Translucent Mirror

Published by University of California Press

Published in print February 2000 | ISBN: 9780520215665
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520928848 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520215665.003.0006
The Wheel-Turning King

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Over the long Qianlong reign, conquest came gradually to a close. The court in its later years made a conscious expression of its sense of completion, of apex, of perfection that transcended the very considerable territorial and economic sway of the empire. Nurgaci and Hung Taiji had often invoked the length of their boundaries in their expositions on the size or importance of their domains; the Shunzhi, Kangxi, and Yongzheng emperors had devoted considerable energies and military resources to expansion of boundaries in Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet, while seeking to negotiate management of a common border with the Romanov empire. The explorers, mapmakers, and weapons manufacturers who had been the foremost agents of the great imperial undertakings of the Kangxi era were overshadowed in the Qianlong period by scribes, scholars, poets, painters, and architects. The militarism of the Kangxi and Yongzheng emperors had been one aspect of their particularistic competition with other monarchs.

Keywords: Qianlong reign; Nurgaci; Hung Taiji; Kangxi emperor; Yongzheng emperor; Shunzhi emperor; Mongolia; Turkestan; Tibet; Romanov empire

Chapter.  26493 words. 

Subjects: Asian History

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