Chapter

Reform and Reaction <i>Northeast China under Zhang Xueliang, 1928–1931</i>

Rana Mitter

in The Manchurian Myth

Published by University of California Press

Published in print February 2000 | ISBN: 9780520221116
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520923881 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520221116.003.0002
Reform and Reaction Northeast China under Zhang Xueliang, 1928–1931

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Japanese anxieties of Russian expansion in the Pacific led to a war between the two nations in 1904–1905, which ended in a victory for the Japanese that shocked not only Russia but all those in the West. In the following years, a militarist from Fengtian province—Zhang Zuolin—rose to become the ruler of the Three Eastern Provinces, and for a time, much of North China. During his ten years of tenure, Zhang launched a series of military campaigns, all ultimately unsuccessful, aimed at installing himself as ruler of the whole of China. He raised taxes and overrode the newly constituted assemblies, and even some of his military subordinates, notably Guo Songling in 1925, attempted to overthrow him. Zhang Zuolin was succeeded by his son Zhang Xueliang. The younger Zhang had to deal with a multitude of problems—political, social, and economic—and his efforts were interrupted after only three years by the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, which began on September 18, 1931.

Keywords: Russian expansion; Fengtian; Zhang Zuolin; Zhang Xueliang; Songling

Chapter.  22004 words. 

Subjects: Asian History

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