Chapter

Ethnicity, Conflict, and the State in the Early to Mid-Qing: The Hainan Highlands, 1644–1800

Anne Csete

in Empire at the Margins

Published by University of California Press

Published in print January 2006 | ISBN: 9780520230156
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520927537 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520230156.003.0009
Ethnicity, Conflict, and the State in the Early to Mid-Qing: The Hainan Highlands, 1644–1800

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From Han times, policies toward Hainan and the Li fell into two general categories: expansionists pushed for more roads, garrisons, colonists, and counties; anti-expansionists argued that such efforts were costly and unnecessary. Han “guest merchants,” called “guest people” (Kemin), were a significant economic and social presence in Li areas in the mid-eighteenth century. The activities of the “guest people” threatened the interests of the Li, and in 1766 an antiguest campaign carried out by some Li shattered the High Qing peace on Hainan. This chapter uses local gazetteers, an essay on the highlands written in 1756 by a magistrate, confessions of captured Li after the 1766 campaign, and memorials by local officials to look at this campaign in detail with a view to defining the nature of Qing governance and the function of ethnicity in local economic and political systems.

Keywords: Hainan; Han; Li; guest merchants; High Qing peace; local gazetteers; ethnicity

Chapter.  11311 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Asian History

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