Chapter

“Proof through the Night”

Glenn Watkins

in Proof through the Night

Published by University of California Press

Published in print December 2002 | ISBN: 9780520231580
Published online May 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520927896 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520231580.003.0018
“Proof through the Night”

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Of all the modes of public participation following the declaration of the Great War in the United States, it was the singing of the national anthem at civic events and in the concert hall that provided the most potent rallying point and gave proof of America's resolve in the dark hours of the war. It was a factor that was quickly understood by American orchestra managers, who early on realized the need to neutralize the heavy dose of music by German and Austrian composers that had long dominated American orchestral programs. National policy and enemy alien laws began to affect conductors and performers of German ancestry alike, many of whom applied for citizenship. The degree of negative sentiment directed toward “hyphenate citizens” during the period of World War I, especially the largest of such groups, the German-Americans, was inordinate. This chapter looks at the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and opera and ballet in New York.

Keywords: Great War; America; music; composers; citizenship; German-Americans; Chicago Symphony Orchestra; Boston Symphony Orchestra; opera; ballet

Chapter.  6379 words. 

Subjects: American Music

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