“Vigorous Practice”: The Chiang Freemasonry

Frederic Wakeman

in Spymaster

Published by University of California Press

Published in print March 2003 | ISBN: 9780520234079
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520928763 | DOI:
“Vigorous Practice”: The Chiang Freemasonry

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This chapter focuses on the history of the Society for Vigorous Practice or Lixingshe in China. This organization was so secret that hardly any outsider knew of its existence between 1932 and 1937. It was perpetually confused with its front groups, whose members were thought by the public to be Blue Shirts, and its activities were often inextricably connected with covert propaganda and intelligence work conducted by Chiang Kai-shek's special services. Around this time, a peculiarly strong bond was being formed between Chiang Kai-shek and Dai Li. All dropped-out Whampoa students were offered the chance to go back to complete their studies but Dai Lai decided to stay and serve Chiang. This chapter also discusses the role of He Zhonghan in Lixingshe and right-wing mobilization.

Keywords: Lixingshe; China; Blue Shirts; covert propaganda; Chiang Kai-shek; Dai Li; He Zongnan; right-wing mobilization

Chapter.  4311 words. 

Subjects: Asian History

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