Chapter

At the Crossroads

Steven L. Isoardi

in The Dark Tree

Published by University of California Press

Published in print April 2006 | ISBN: 9780520245914
Published online May 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520932241 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520245914.003.0009
At the Crossroads

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This chapter describes the status of the Underground Musicians and Artists Association (UGMAA) and Pan Afrikan Peoples Arkestra (PAPA) during the 1980s. It explains that the 1980s were an especially difficult time for many residents of South Central Los Angeles and African Americans were three times more likely than whites to fall below the poverty line. The effect of the UGMAA and the Arkestra were the loss of Construction Education and Training Authority (CETA) funding, the Shop, nonprofit status, and the Immanuel United Church of Christ (IUCC). The economic devastation and elimination of arts and music programs within the schools and throughout the city also curtailed the Arkestra's audience and potential recruits.

Keywords: African Americans; poverty; funding; nonprofit status; schools; arts program; music program

Chapter.  10069 words. 

Subjects: American Music

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