From <i>Morris Gest's Midnight Whirl</i> (1919) to <i>The Perfect Fool</i> (1921)

Howard Pollack

in George Gershwin

Published by University of California Press

Published in print January 2007 | ISBN: 9780520248649
Published online May 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520933149 | DOI:
From Morris Gest's Midnight Whirl (1919) to The Perfect Fool (1921)

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Morris Gest's Midnight Whirl was Gershwin's first revue to appear on Broadway. In 1919, Gershwin also recorded his Novelette in Fourths for piano, presumably written that year. He wrote another instrumental work, Lullaby, a short piece for string quartet that survives. Following “Swanee,” Gershwin continued to collaborate with Irving Caesar intermittently through 1923. With George White's Scandals of 1920, Broadway heard a complete new Gershwin score. The piece “Waiting for the Sun to Come Out” was George and Ira's first published song together. Its modest success on the stage and in sheet-music and record sales must have encouraged future collaboration. Throughout 1921, Gershwin continued to write songs seemingly independent of any show.

Keywords: Broadway; Novelette in Fourths; Irving Caesar; George White; Lullaby; Ira Gershwin

Chapter.  8511 words. 

Subjects: American Music

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