Chapter

Sequential Radiation through Host-Race Formation: Herbivore Diversity Leads to Diversity in Natural Enemies

Warren G. Abrahamson and Catherine P. Blair

in Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation

Published by University of California Press

Published in print March 2008 | ISBN: 9780520251328
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520933828 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520251328.003.0014
Sequential Radiation through Host-Race Formation: Herbivore Diversity Leads to Diversity in Natural Enemies

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Sympatric speciation through formation of host races may present a situation where specialization and resultant diversification in one species cause diversification in another. Studies involving a number of taxa including fish, birds, crustaceans, mollusks, mites, and herbivorous insects indicate that reproductive isolation and divergence can take place sympatrically. This chapter explores five examples in which the genetic diversification of herbivores has created new resource opportunities that have been exploited by natural enemies, namely, host-habitat fidelity, plant-mediated host shifts and competition for a desirable niche, niche construction and niche-related selection, a more distant relationship with the host gall, and recurring local sequential radiation. It considers sequential radiation through host-race formation and how herbivore diversity leads to diversity in natural enemies. Finally, the chapter describes host-race formation in the parasitoid Eurytoma gigantea, which oviposits into the central chambers of fully grown galls induced by the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis.

Keywords: Eurytoma gigantea; Eurosta solidaginis; sympatric speciation; host races; sequential radiation; herbivores; diversity; natural enemies; host shifts; selection

Chapter.  12558 words. 

Subjects: Evolutionary Biology

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