Chapter

Causes

Michael Lannoo

in Malformed Frogs

Published by University of California Press

Published in print April 2008 | ISBN: 9780520255883
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520942530 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520255883.003.0005
Causes

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This chapter lists the natural and manmade causes of frog malformations. The natural causes of malformations include wounds from failed predation attempts, fish excrement, extreme tadpole densities, lathyrogens, nutritional deficiencies, ultraviolet-B radiation, diseases, temperature, hereditary factors, and parasites. Several manmade causes of amphibian malformations include acidification, radioactive pollution, ozone depletion, heavy metals, retinoids, agricultural chemicals, and xenobiotics. The chapter also discusses the correlation between morphology and cause of malformation type.

Keywords: causes of malformations; frog malformations; predation; fish excrement; lathyrogens; ultraviolet-B radiation; acidification; radioactive pollution; retinoids; agricultural chemicals

Chapter.  1841 words. 

Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences

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