ilham Khuri-Makdisi

in The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860-1914

Published by University of California Press

Published in print April 2010 | ISBN: 9780520262010
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520945463 | DOI:

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A wide variety of radical leftist ideas in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries began circulating among segments of the populations of Eastern Mediterranean cities. These ideas, which are best defined as selective adaptations of socialist and anarchic principles, included specific calls for social justice, workers' rights, mass secular education, and anticlericalism, and more broadly a general challenge to the existing social and political order at home and abroad. The ideas of social justice that constituted central themes in leftist thought rarely had a reformist agenda. Radicals in Beirut, Cairo, and Alexandria forged a culture of contestation in which they challenged existing and emerging class boundaries, redefined notions of foreignness and belonging, and promoted alternative visions of the social and world order.

Keywords: Eastern Mediterranean cities; socialist principles; anticlericalism; Alexandria; Cairo

Chapter.  6091 words. 

Subjects: Asian History

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