Recent Attempts to Resolve the Escalating Conflict

Stanley Wolpert

in India and Pakistan

Published by University of California Press

Published in print September 2010 | ISBN: 9780520266773
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520948006 | DOI:
Recent Attempts to Resolve the Escalating Conflict

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Prolonged secret efforts by India and Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons reached their dramatic fruition in May 1998, when both camps exploded powerful nuclear bombs. World leaders from Britain, Russia, China, and the United States, tried their best to persuade both Prime Ministers Atul Bihari Vajpayee and Nawaz Sharif to reach peaceful agreements on all outstanding Indo-Pakistani conflicts as swiftly as possible. In February 1999, Vajpayee met with Sharif in Lahore in the so-called “Spring Summit of Friendship.” They were greeted with black flags by thousands of angry militant Pakistanis. General Pervez Musharraf, Pakistan's chief of army staff, ordered Pakistani troops to occupy icy Indian-built bunkers on the Line of Control in Kargil without informing Sharif. In his memoir, Musharaff asks, “How did we reach the present-day epidemic of terrorism and extremism?”. He blamed the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and its aftermath, which triggered the influx of so many Pathan refugees into Pakistan camps. Benazir Bhutto, however, blamed Musharraf himself and his military aides.

Keywords: Afghanistan; India; Pakistan; Atul Bihari Vajpayee; Nawaz Sharif; conflicts; Pervez Musharraf; Kargil; terrorism; extremism

Chapter.  2889 words. 

Subjects: Asian History

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