Michael Frede

in A Free Will

Published by University of California Press

Published in print January 2011 | ISBN: 9780520268487
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520948372 | DOI:

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This concluding chapter sums up the key findings of this study on the emergence of the notion of free will in antiquity. It concludes that the notion of a free will first arises in late Stoicism in the first century A.D. and it can clearly be found in the works of Epictetus. The notion is the conception of an ability to make choices and decisions, in particular choices and decisions which amount to one's willing to do something. This chapter argues that among ancient philosophers, it was Alexander of Aphrodisias who allowed himself to be driven into accepting a conception of a free will which is very close to the kind of conception criticized nowadays by philosophers.

Keywords: free will; antiquity; Stoicism; Epictetus; choices; decisions; Alexander of Aphrodisias

Chapter.  1271 words. 

Subjects: Classical Philosophy

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