Frank N. Egerton

in Roots of Ecology

Published by University of California Press

Published in print July 2012 | ISBN: 9780520271746
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780520953635 | DOI:

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Italy first emerged from medieval Latin civilization because of its successful trade with Byzantine and Muslim merchants. Its new wealth was invested in a more opulent civilization, which included investments in scholarship. Scholars at Italian universities gained access to Byzantine manuscripts and translated them into Latin. The zoological writings of Aristotle and botanical writings of Theophrastus were published in both Greek and Latin, using Gutenberg's innovation of the printing press, before 1500. Italy's scholarly achievements then spread elsewhere in western Europe, and that larger educated community then made original contributions to botany, vertebrate zoology, and to invertebrate zoology and parasitology. These contributions were also published in books, which spread the new learning more rapidly than before.

Keywords: universities; Byzantine manuscripts; botany; zoology; invertebrates; parasites

Chapter.  9772 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Animal Pathology and Diseases

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