Chapter

Evolution in Space

Michael Heads

in Molecular Panbiogeography of the Tropics

Published by University of California Press

Published in print January 2012 | ISBN: 9780520271968
Published online September 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780520951808 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520271968.003.0001
Evolution in Space

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The main processes in biogeography are phylogenetic differentiation by vicariance, range expansion by normal ecological dispersal, and, in some cases, sympatric differentiation. Chance dispersal and differentiation by founder dispersal can be rejected. The location of a basal clade or a paraphyletic basal group have been thought to represent a center of origin, but this cannot be assumed. The significance of extinction is discussed with reference to the subgenera of Nothofagus, a tree that has an excellent fossil record. Groups tend to go extinct in localities where they are less diverse to begin with. The relationship between ecology and biogeography is discussed, with reference to metapopulations and weeds.

Keywords: basal clade; paraphyletic basal group; center of origin; vicariance; dispersal; founder; range expansion; sympatric differentiation

Chapter.  21114 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Evolutionary Biology

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