Chapter

Foreign Policy Experts As Service Intellectuals: The American Institute of Pacific Relations, The Council on Foreign Relations, and Planning the Occupation of Japan During World War II

Yutaka Sasaki

in The United States and the Second World War

Published by Fordham University Press

Published in print September 2010 | ISBN: 9780823231201
Published online March 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780823240791 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5422/fso/9780823231201.003.0011

Series: World War II: The Global, Human, and Ethical Dimension

Foreign Policy Experts As             Service Intellectuals: The American Institute of Pacific Relations, The Council on             Foreign Relations, and Planning the Occupation of Japan During World War II

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This chapter examines the origins of the phenomenally successful postwar occupation of Japan. It focuses on the role of the Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR) and the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), and highlights the complexity of planning for the postwar occupation as well as the competing visions that went into the making of the U.S. occupation of Japan. Making use of both Japanese and American archival material, the chapter closely studies the heretofore underexamined 1945 Hot Springs Conference, at which 150 delegates from 12 IPR member states met to compare ideas for the postwar occupation and details the very limited occupation that many British members of the IPR envisioned as compared with the extensive program that American members called for. Although it is impossible to determine the exact influence of the conference on the occupation, key State Department officials attended the meetings, and the final conference report reached President Roosevelt's desk. The chapter also makes extensive use of the records of the Council on Foreign Relations' Studies of American Interests in the War and Peace.

Keywords: Japan; postwar occupation; foreign policy; Hot Springs Conference; Institute of Pacific Relations; Council of Foreign Relations

Chapter.  16125 words. 

Subjects: History of the Americas

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