Piety and Profit: The Haramayn Endowments in Egypt (1517–1814)<sup>1</sup>

Husam ʻabd al-Mu'ti

in Held in Trust

Published by American University in Cairo Press

Published in print December 2011 | ISBN: 9789774163937
Published online January 2012 | e-ISBN: 9781617970924 | DOI:
Piety and Profit: The Haramayn Endowments in Egypt (1517–1814)1

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In a study of endowments created in Egypt to benefit Mecca and Medina, this chapter shows how the Ottoman sultans relied on these institutions to bolster their legitimacy and therefore found themselves obliged to battle local groups for control of waqf revenue, while taking care not to disrupt relations with Egypt's increasingly autonomous and fractious military commanders. It examines the waqfs endowed in Egypt for the benefit of the two sanctuaries (al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn). It attempts to identify the income of the Meccan and Medinan religious endowments endowed in Egypt for Mecca and Medina, maps out the holdings and functions of each endowment, and understands the problems they faced in performing the duties assigned them by the Ottoman state. This study seeks to develop the conclusions of existing research on the Haramayn endowments in Egypt during the Ottoman period, in particular the important analyses of Muhammad Fahim Bayyumi and Azza Shahin.

Keywords: Egypt; Mecca; Medina; Ottoman sultans; waqf revenue; Haramayn endowments

Chapter.  13108 words. 

Subjects: Society and Culture

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