Protecting Cultural Heritage in Conflict

Neil Brodie, Morag M. Kersel and Kathryn Walker Tubb

in Archaeology, Cultural Heritage, and the Antiquities Trade

Published by University Press of Florida

Published in print August 2006 | ISBN: 9780813029726
Published online September 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780813039145 | DOI:
Protecting Cultural Heritage in Conflict

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This chapter describes the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, which was drafted with this aim in mind, particularly its First Protocol, which places an obligation on States Parties not to remove cultural objects from territories occupied during wartime, and the 1999 Second Protocol, which extends this obligation to Parties engaged in civil war, and establishes that violations of the Convention are criminal offenses and provides rules for the prosecution of offenders. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)'s assistance to Iraq was limited by the United Nations' Sanctions Committee, which did not allow the dispatch of chemicals, photographic paper, and other supplies to enable reconstitution of the inventories. The situation in Iraq is all the more tragic in that it follows the hemorrhage of cultural materials set in motion by the armed intervention of 1991. The value of the Hague Convention over the last fifty years is evaluated.

Keywords: 1954 Hague Convention; cultural property; armed conflict; States Parties; Iraq; United Nations; cultural heritage

Chapter.  4675 words. 

Subjects: Archaeological Methodology and Techniques

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