This chapter outlines the stand of the three most prominent clubwomen on the issue of separation and integration movements and strategies on racism. These three women are Margaret Murray Washington, Nannie Helen Burroughs, and Mary McLeod Bethune. They all played important roles in forwarding pan-African and civil rights during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This chapter examines the contributions of these women in the national black women's club. Particular attention is given to their works and activities as clubwomen during the 1920s. The chapter also looks into their insistence to choose the elements of integrationationalism and black nationalism while forwarding their pan-Africanist stand which laid and cemented the foundations of black nationalist feminist thought.
Keywords: clubwomen; separation strategies; integration strategies; Margaret Murray Washington; Nannie Helen Burroughs; Mary McLeod Bethune; civil rights; contributions; black women's club; integrationationalism
Chapter. 22103 words. Illustrated.
Subjects: History of the Americas
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