The California Plan

Christina A. Ziegler-McPherson

in Americanization in the States

Published by University Press of Florida

Published in print July 2009 | ISBN: 9780813033617
Published online September 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780813039718 | DOI:
The California Plan

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The immigrant welfare activities of the New York Bureau of Industries and Immigration (NYBII) inspired progressives in other parts of the country to develop similar programs to address their states' immigration issues. California, already under the leadership of progressive Governor Hiram W. Johnson, followed New York's lead, and in 1912–13 established first a temporary immigration commission and then a permanent agency, the California Commission of Immigration and Housing (CCIH). By 1917, the CCIH had developed an effective program of inspecting agricultural labor camps, collecting and resolving immigrants' complaints, and monitoring IWW activity. The commission's labor camp inspection and complaints resolution work was similar to that of the NYBII but the Californians' concern about labor radicalism was distinctive and reflected the unique conditions of California's unskilled labor market.

Keywords: NYBII; immigration; Hiram Johnson; CCIH; Americanization; social welfare; labor market

Chapter.  5896 words. 

Subjects: Social and Cultural History

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