Bowles and Apalache on Separate Paths, 1792–1798

Gilbert C. Din

in War on the Gulf Coast

Published by University Press of Florida

Published in print January 2012 | ISBN: 9780813037523
Published online May 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780813042145 | DOI:
Bowles and Apalache on Separate Paths, 1792–1798

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This chapter discusses both Bowles's travels and Apalache during these years. Colonial authorities sent Bowles to Spain and the Philippines as a prisoner. He created so much mischief in Manila that the governor sent him back to Spain, but he escaped on the return journey. Bowles returned to England and again sought help for his Muskogee state. Great Britain provided little. Apalache, meanwhile, remained restless. The Creeks had no comparable leader upon McGillivray's death in 1793. The Seminoles continued to seek goods from Nassau while the Georgians encroached on Creek lands. Spain's 1795 treaty with the United States placed most Creek lands in American hands. Fort San Marcos sustained heavy damages again in a hurricane, which underscored the weaknesses of Spanish defenses in West Florida.

Keywords: Bowles's travels; Creek leader; Seminoles; American land-grabbing

Chapter.  9223 words. 

Subjects: Military History

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