Recall and Return

Edward J. M. Rhoads

in Stepping Forth into the World

Published by Hong Kong University Press

Published in print February 2011 | ISBN: 9789888028863
Published online September 2011 | e-ISBN: 9789882207424 | DOI:
Recall and Return

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In the summer of 1881, the Chinese Educational Mission (CEM) came to an end when all the students were ordered back to China, abruptly. The CEM was criticized on two points. First, many converted to Christianity. Second, Chinese Educational Commission (CEC) officials had been extraordinarily lax in controlling the students. Last was the surge in anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States. Led by labor organizations and the Democratic Party, the agitation targeted Chinese contract laborers. The CEM students were shielded to a great extent from the anti-Chinese movement by their American host families, teachers, and friends who were dominantly Republican in politics. However, the CEM students were not immune from the upsurge of the anti-Chinese prejudice. The students themselves were greatly disappointed to have their studies in America interrupted in mid-course and to be ordered home to China. Yet, they all obeyed the decree. The students were well treated during their return journey just as they had travelled before, first-class.

Keywords: Chinese Educational Mission; China; labor organizations; Democratic Party; anti-Chinese prejudice; Chinese contract laborers; host families

Chapter.  7007 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Asian History

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