Chapter

Zhang Merchants 1721–1780

Paul A. Van Dyke

in Merchants of Canton and Macao

Published by Hong Kong University Press

Published in print December 2012 | ISBN: 9789888028917
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9789882208650 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5790/hongkong/9789888028917.003.0013
Zhang  Merchants 1721–1780

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Little has been written about the Zhang merchants in Canton, partly because they were not among the most wealthy or powerful men in trade, and partly because of a lack of information about them in English and Chinese sources. Like Leunqua and Consentia Giqua in Chapter 11, the Zhangs' successes show that small to mid-level operators had some key advantages over larger houses. As businesses grew, they became targets for government extractions and the assumption of failed merchants' debts. By remaining small and keeping a low profile, the Zhang merchants could better avoid governmental attention and interference in their operations.

Keywords: commerce; partnerships; bankruptcy; China

Chapter.  3354 words. 

Subjects: Asian History

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