Zhang Merchants 1721–1780

Paul A. Van Dyke

in Merchants of Canton and Macao

Published by Hong Kong University Press

Published in print December 2012 | ISBN: 9789888028917
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9789882208650 | DOI:
Zhang  Merchants 1721–1780

Show Summary Details


Little has been written about the Zhang merchants in Canton, partly because they were not among the most wealthy or powerful men in trade, and partly because of a lack of information about them in English and Chinese sources. Like Leunqua and Consentia Giqua in Chapter 11, the Zhangs' successes show that small to mid-level operators had some key advantages over larger houses. As businesses grew, they became targets for government extractions and the assumption of failed merchants' debts. By remaining small and keeping a low profile, the Zhang merchants could better avoid governmental attention and interference in their operations.

Keywords: commerce; partnerships; bankruptcy; China

Chapter.  3354 words. 

Subjects: Asian History

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Buy this work at Hong Kong University Press »

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.