Liang Merchants 1729–1756

Paul A. Van Dyke

in Merchants of Canton and Macao

Published by Hong Kong University Press

Published in print December 2012 | ISBN: 9789888028917
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9789882208650 | DOI:
Liang  Merchants 1729–1756

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Emanuel Quiqua and Attay shared the same last name, Liang, but no evidence has emerged to suggest they were related. They both entered the trade in the early 1730s during the controversy between Tan Hunqua and Tan Suqua. They traded in a variety of products, including tea, porcelain, and fabrics, but never reached the status or volume of the large merchant houses. They traded on the margins, taking advantage of any leniency in the control of commerce to expand their operations. When trade was more tightly controlled and competition more intense, they had to resort to more risky transactions to gain customers.

Keywords: commerce; monopoly; China

Chapter.  2447 words. 

Subjects: Asian History

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