“Hallelujah, I'm a Travelin’!”


in Freedom's Main Line

Published by University Press of Kentucky

Published in print December 2008 | ISBN: 9780813125114
Published online September 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780813135137 | DOI:
“Hallelujah, I'm a Travelin’!”

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Before the Freedom Ride began, a bus company and one of its drivers was fined a hundred dollars each by federal judge William A. Bottle for insisting that Marguerite L. Edwards—an interstate passenger—take a seat at the bus's rear as it traveled across Georgia. After this event, several bus lines in Memphis such as Continental and Greyhound announced that their racial segregation policies would be discontinued. Because these company practices accounted for only one layer of Jim Crow transportation, these announcements were not integrated nationwide. During that same week, a campaign was launched by the State Department to lessen the discrimination against Asian and African diplomats in the South and in other border states. While President Kennedy moved that Southern governors facilitated “friendly and dignified reception” towards foreign diplomatic representatives, CORE focused more on how the Freedom Rides heightened the organization's effectiveness, finances, visibility, and membership.

Keywords: Freedom Rides; bus lines; Memphis; foreign diplomatic representatives; Asian diplomats; African diplomats; CORE

Chapter.  7714 words. 

Subjects: History of the Americas

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