Becoming the Urban Crisis, 1961–1963

David Hamilton Golland

in Constructing Affirmative Action

Published by University Press of Kentucky

Published in print March 2011 | ISBN: 9780813129976
Published online September 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780813135472 | DOI:
Becoming the Urban Crisis, 1961–1963

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Maxwell C. Stanford and Stanley Daniels were African Americans who had gone to a Philadelphia school construction site demonstration in order to document what the NAACP intended to be a peaceful protest against the discrimination exercised by local construction unions. Because of the local union control imposed in the hiring process, skilled black construction workers were not hired to be a part of the school construction, as with other construction projects that were funded by the city. Blacks were employed in jobs referred to as “trowel trades” as those did not require much or any skill at all. Although the hiring policies saw the shift from exclusivity to tokenism, the economic downturn in the early 1960s showed how tokenism fell short. This chapter illustrates how, through legislation and the enforcement of executive officers, civil rights advocates convinced Kennedy's administration to provide equal opportunity for employment.

Keywords: construction workers; NAACP; discrimination; construction unions; hiring process; black workers; legislation; executive officers; employment opportunity

Chapter.  12444 words. 

Subjects: History of the Americas

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