Crossnational Patterns and Processes of Ethnic Disadvantage


in Unequal Chances

Published by British Academy

Published in print October 2007 | ISBN: 9780197263860
Published online February 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191734953 | DOI:

Series: Proceedings of the British Academy

Crossnational Patterns and Processes of Ethnic Disadvantage

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The experience of the second generation of migrants gives a clearer idea of whether liberal developed countries of Europe and North America provide equal opportunities to all their citizens, irrespective of their ethnic or national origin. This chapter examines the relationship between patterns of ethnic disadvantage and the nature of each country's economy, its patterns of social fluidity, its conception of nationhood, racism and xenophobia, and the relevant government policies. It discusses the gross disadvantages that ethnic minorities typically experience in the labour market and the net disadvantages (or ethnic penalties) after controlling for individual characteristics, especially for educational level and age. The chapter also assesses the gross differences between groups to determine the overall extent of ethnic stratification in each society and the nature of the vertical mosaic.

Keywords: Europe; North America; second generation; migrants; ethnic disadvantage; social fluidity; xenophobia; labour market; ethnic penalties; ethnic stratification

Chapter.  21074 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Race and Ethnicity

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