Chapter

International Migration and the Integration of Labor Markets

Barry R. Chiswick and Timothy J. Hatton

in Globalization in Historical Perspective

Published by University of Chicago Press

Published in print August 2003 | ISBN: 9780226065984
Published online February 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780226065991 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226065991.003.0003
International Migration and the Integration of Labor Markets

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This chapter illustrates that the globalization of world markets has been of prime economic importance in two key eras: the age of mass migration, which rose to a crescendo between 1850 and 1913; and the era of “constrained” mass migration of the last fifty years. The focus is on intercontinental migrations: from Europe to the New World and from parts of Asia to other areas around the globe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and primarily from the third world to the first world and the Persian Gulf in the late twentieth century. The chapter begins by mapping out the different eras of international migration and labor mobility over the last four centuries, and then examines the underlying forces that drove mass migration in the two eras of globalization. Next, it considers the effects of migration on sending and receiving countries, and the impact of these economic effects on what has been dubbed the “policy backlash.” Although the fundamentals driving international migration were similar in the two periods, the nature, direction, and consequences of the flows reflect changes in the structure and integration of the international economy. The effects of international migration are conditioned both by structural changes in the world economy and by changes in policy regimes. In turn, the policy regimes have evolved in response to changing economic structures, political developments, and migration itself. The chapter concludes with an overview of migration flows and policy in the past, and with speculation about the future. A commentary is also included at the end of the chapter.

Keywords: globalization; world markets; mass migration; labor mobility; international economy; policy regimes

Chapter.  26396 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Economic History

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