Chapter

Formalizing Responses to Research Hazards

Sydney A. Halpern

in Lesser Harms

Published by University of Chicago Press

Published in print November 2004 | ISBN: 9780226314518
Published online February 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780226314532 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226314532.003.0005
Formalizing Responses to Research Hazards

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Between the mid-1930s and mid-1950s, a discernable shift took place in the organizational management of research hazards. Of the three approaches to research risks adopted by organizational sponsors—containment, avoidance, and delegation—containment emerged as the dominant policy. At mid-century, growing numbers of American scientists were observing measures for controlling risk imposed by the organizations supporting their research. Years before the federal policies that created institutional review boards, a handful of particularly influential organizations and agencies were building the rudiments of a system for handling the risks of human experiments. This chapter examines the origins and character of research sponsors' risk containment strategies, focusing on how sponsors came to pursue particular approaches to risk management and why their procedures become increasingly homogenous and formalized. After looking at sponsors during and after World War II, the chapter discusses consent and insurance as vehicles for controlling investigatory hazards. It then considers the oversight of scientific advisory panels.

Keywords: research hazards; research sponsors; risk management; human experiments; risk containment; consent; insurance; advisory panels

Chapter.  9898 words. 

Subjects: Health, Illness, and Medicine

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