Chapter

A Hawk Turns to Peace, Doves Go to War

Lynn C. Klotz and Edward J. Sylvester

in Breeding Bio Insecurity

Published by University of Chicago Press

Published in print October 2009 | ISBN: 9780226444055
Published online February 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780226444079 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226444079.003.0003
A Hawk Turns to Peace, Doves Go to War

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The use of biological and chemical weapons in warfare theoretically ended with the 1925 Geneva protocol, but only for those who had ratified it. In the face of such dangers, President Richard Nixon radically changed his mind about continuing to develop, produce, and stockpile biological weapons, ending an extensive decades-long program. Matthew Meselson was about to play a pivotal role in U.S. bioweapons policy in warning that the weapons could become far cheaper and easier to produce than nuclear weapons, thereby placing great mass destructive power within reach of nations not now possessing it. During World War II, Japan stood alone as the only documented large-scale user of biological weapons. The Geneva Protocol convinced Ishii that disease must be a potent weapon or biological weapons would not have been banned.

Keywords: chemical weapons; warfare; Geneva protocol; bioweapons; biological weapons; potent weapon; nuclear weapons

Chapter.  7299 words. 

Subjects: Biotechnology

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