Female Social Dynamics: Fidelity and Flexibility

Cynthia J. Moss and Phyllis C. Lee

in The Amboseli Elephants

Published by University of Chicago Press

Published in print March 2011 | ISBN: 9780226542232
Published online February 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780226542263 | DOI:
Female Social Dynamics: Fidelity and Flexibility

More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • Animal Behaviour and Behavioural Ecology


Show Summary Details


This chapter, which describes female elephant social organization and dynamics at the individual, family, and bond group levels in the Amboseli population, examines both the consistency and changes that have occurred over a period of 30 years. By analyzing association and grouping patterns among female elephants, it demonstrates the nature of the flexible fission–fusion society that allows for individual responses to environmental, demographic, and social conditions. Although many of these responses are based on costs and benefits for the individual, the social responses of elephants are far more complex than those predicted by a simple cost-benefit analysis at a single point in time. Females make social decisions over long periods of time as well as responding to social and ecological opportunities and conditions on a day-to-day and even an hour-to-hour basis.

Keywords: female elephant; social organization; fidelity; grouping pattern; social conditions; social decision

Chapter.  12158 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Animal Behaviour and Behavioural Ecology

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.