The ‘crisis of penetration’ of the State

José Álvarez-Junco

in Spanish Identity in the Age of Nations

Published by Manchester University Press

Published in print September 2011 | ISBN: 9780719075797
Published online July 2012 | e-ISBN: 9781781701737 | DOI:
The ‘crisis of penetration’ of the State

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In 1973 Juan Linz, the pioneering scholar of Spanish nationalism, identified the essential problem of the State in the nineteenth century as one of a ‘crisis of penetration’. According to Linz, the Spanish State was unable to influence society either by means of its educational institutions or else by creating symbols that were acceptable to the majority of its citizens. In the early 1980s, José María Jover put forward a similar theory, which has been advocated even more forcibly thereafter by Borja de Riquer, for whom the growth of regional nationalisms in the twentieth century has been due less to the strength and intolerable centralising pressures of españolismo than to its very weaknesses—in other words, ‘to the ineffectiveness of the state nationalising process’ in the nineteenth century, the outcome of which was ‘a weak Spanish identity’.

Keywords: Spanish identity; Spain; nationalism; Spanish State

Chapter.  13107 words. 

Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945)

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