The leader and the led: hegemonic strategies in the leadership of Hugo Chávez     

Barry Cannon

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution

Published by Manchester University Press

Published in print December 2009 | ISBN: 9780719077715
Published online July 2012 | e-ISBN: 9781781701959 | DOI:
The leader and the led: hegemonic strategies in the leadership of Hugo Chávez     

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This chapter explores how Hugo Chávez came to power as president of Venezuela, focusing on the strategies he used to achieve hegemony. It examines not only the political content of the Chávez discourse but also its cultural content and how that contributed to his gaining legitimacy with the majority of the Venezuelan population and thus moving towards hegemony. It first looks at the origins of Chávez and the Bolivarian Movement and then analyses the coup d'état of 1992, the emergence and construction of Chávez's discourse and symbolism, and the subsequent transformation of the military Movimiento Bolivariano Revolucionario 200 into the electoral and popular civic-military Movimiento Quinta Republica, which, allied to other leftist movements and parties in the Polo Patriotico, led to Chávez's victory in the 1998 elections. The chapter also examines the more recent attempt at unification of these disparate elements into a unified Socialist party, Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela. Finally, the chapter considers the manner in which Chávez reshaped Venezuela through the mechanism of the Assamblea Nacional Constituyente and the resulting Bolivarian constitution of 1999.

Keywords: Venezuela; Hugo Chávez; hegemony; legitimacy; Bolivarian Movement; coup d'état; Movimiento Bolivariano Revolucionario 200; Movimiento Quinta Republica; Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela; Assamblea Nacional Constituyente

Chapter.  11010 words. 

Subjects: International Relations

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