Conclusion: populism and democracy in a globalised age

Barry Cannon

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution

Published by Manchester University Press

Published in print December 2009 | ISBN: 9780719077715
Published online July 2012 | e-ISBN: 9781781701959 | DOI:
Conclusion: populism and democracy in a globalised age

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This book has grouped a number of central questions into four central pillars—the ‘four Cs’: context, causes, characteristics and consequences. Hence, the book asked: What were the contexts in which Hugo Chávez emerged? What were the immediate causes of his emergence? What policies have been implemented—in other words what are the characteristics of chavismo? And finally, what consequences is chavismo having on Venezuela? This book has also examined the socioeconomic policies of the Chávez regime to show the extent to which Chávez has departed from established globalisation processes, so gaining legitimacy and establishing hegemony; the relative levels of democracy and authoritarianism found in the Chávez presidency; and Venezuela's foreign policy placing it within Anthony Payne's theory of the ‘global politics of unequal development’. Finally, the book has argued that populism is a key explanatory concept for understanding politics in Latin America but that it is imperative to place the national context within the wider international structure in order to fully understand the phenomenon.

Keywords: populism; Latin America; Venezuela; Hugo Chávez; globalisation; Anthony Payne; global politics; unequal development; foreign policy; socioeconomic policies

Chapter.  2614 words. 

Subjects: International Relations

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