State-directed advocacy: the ‘drift’ phenomenon in the ‘free Tibet’ and global warming campaigns

Stephen Noakes

in The Advocacy Trap

Published by Manchester University Press

Published in print January 2018 | ISBN: 9781526119476
Published online May 2018 | e-ISBN: 9781526132413 | DOI:
State-directed advocacy: the ‘drift’ phenomenon in the ‘free Tibet’ and global warming campaigns

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The cases explored here, namely the campaign to establish a sovereign Tibetan homeland and to reduce China’s greenhouse gas emissions, represented a third type of causal process—‘advocacy drift.’ In the former case, Beijing’s refusal to countenance the prospect of a ‘free Tibet’ and drive to protect its own territorial integrity created conditions under which the TAN splintered into a variety of factions. Some of these espoused the use of ‘any means necessary’ to effect the goal of an independent Tibetan state, while others, including the Dalai Lama himself, retreated from the original mission of the TAN and have instead sought greater cultural protection for Tibetans within a more multinational China. In the case of the global arming campaign, advocates of emissions trading abandoned that means of reducing China’s carbon outputs, and chose instead to work with an assortment of state agencies and NGOs to combat global warming on China’s terms. While the mechanisms at play in the intra-campaign changes described in this chapter differ, both call attention to the way in which states shape advocacy campaigns just as campaigns may influence state behaviour.

Keywords: Tibet; Independence; Sovereignty; Representation; China; Global Warming; Emissions; Environmentalism; NGOs; Trade

Chapter.  13813 words. 

Subjects: International Relations

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