Fukuzawa Yukichi and Nishikawa Shunsaku

in An Encouragement of Learning

Published by Columbia University Press

Published in print December 2013 | ISBN: 9780231167147
Published online November 2015 | e-ISBN: 9780231536615 | DOI:

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This chapter presents the English translation of Section 11 of Fukuzawa Yukichi’s text Gakumon no susume (An Encouragement of Learning). Fukuzawa argues here that the theory of moral subordination of inferiors to superiors is only appropriate for the parent–child relation. Since parents love their children even more than themselves, the instructions and discipline, encouragements and scoldings which they give their children spring from loving affection. It is impossible for the same relation to prevail between adult strangers. Yet, however difficult it might be, attempts have been made to extend the theory of moral subordination to all human relations. This is the reason why tyranny has subsequently been practiced.

Keywords: moral subordination; subservience; parent-child relations; moral subservience; tyranny

Chapter.  2515 words. 

Subjects: Asian History

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