Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are frequently coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Acute HCV infection is often asymptomatic and poorly understood. We conducted a historical prospective study of HCV antibody and viremia in plasma samples obtained during 1994–1999 from a cohort of initially HIV-1–infected, HCV-uninfected women and from HIV-1–HCV–uninfected women. Twenty-two (1.5%) of 1517 experienced seroconversion. Of these, 14 (64%) truly acquired a new infection as assessed by enzyme immunoassay response and new-onset viremia. The incidence rate in HIV-1–infected women was 2.7 cases per 1000 person-years; it was 3.3 cases per 1000 person-years in HIV-1–seronegative women (relative risk, 1.21; P = .75). Acquisition of HCV was associated with any history of drug use (P < .01). Five of 12 viremic, seroconverting individuals cleared viremia. Incident HCV infection among HIV-1–infected and HIV-1–uninfected women was low. It was linked to drug use and commonly resolved.
Journal Article. 4190 words. Illustrated.
Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology
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