The Journey Continued

Hidetaka Hirota

in Expelling the Poor

Published in print February 2017 | ISBN: 9780190619213
Published online January 2017 | e-ISBN: 9780190619244 | DOI:
The Journey Continued

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  • History of the Americas
  • Modern History (1700 to 1945)


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This chapter explores the process of deportation from the United States and its aftermath in Europe. While American officials deported many Irish paupers to Liverpool, authorities in Liverpool sent them to Ireland under the British pauper removal law. Workhouse officials in Ireland, meanwhile, insisted that these paupers did not belong to their community and even proposed sending the deportees back to the United States. American, British, and Irish officials’ invocation of the laws of settlement and removal was rooted in their collective view of Irish migrant paupers as the undeserving poor, who allegedly refused to participate in production due to their laziness and moral failing. This perception facilitated the banishment of Irish migrant paupers from the United States and Britain and their social marginalization in Ireland. American deportation policy operated as part of a broader legal culture of excluding nonproducing members from societies in the Atlantic world.

Keywords: postdeportation; Liverpool; Cork; Board of Guardians; Irish nationalism; Irish poor law; British Empire; law of settlement; belonging

Chapter.  10323 words. 

Subjects: History of the Americas ; Modern History (1700 to 1945)

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