This chapter describes the following alternatives and complements to RA in terms of their assumptions, implementations, strengths, and weaknesses: (1) constructed comparison group; (2) propensity scores; and (3) instrumental variables methods. Constructed comparison groups are statistical alternatives to RA. Propensity scores are statistical alternatives and supplements to RA. Instrumental variables methods are statistical alternatives and supplements to RA.
Keywords: constructed comparison group; expected post–pretest difference; propensity score matching; instrumental variables methods; exclusion restriction
Chapter. 7549 words. Illustrated.
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